IPR stands for Intellectual Property Rights. Intellectual property can be defined as the product of the human intellect that includes creativity concepts, inventions, industrial models, brands, names, logos, slogans, symbols, trademarks, literature, and beyond. IPR does not differ from other rights of properties. They also allow their owners to get the benefits from their products that were initially an idea that developed and crystallized. They also entitle them to prevent others from using, allocating, or interfering with their products without prior permission of them. They can even sue them, force them to stop, and ask for compensation for their loss or damage.
History of IPR
IPR is not new in the industry. It is estimated that it was initially started in North Italy during the Renaissance era. In the year 1474, Venice issued a law to protect the patent for the owner. In 1440 A.D., Johannes Gutenberg launched the printing press along with portable wooden or metal letters. In the 19th century, the majority of countries felt the need to lay down laws regulating IPR. Internationally, two conversations have been signed:
- Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property (1883)
- Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works (1886)
Protection of IPR
IPR protection helps the innovators, brand owners, patent holders, and copyright holders to get the benefit from their work, labor, and investment, which does not mean monopoly of the intellect. These rights are created out in the International Declaration of Human Rights that provide benefits from the security of the moral as well as physical interests, which results from the right holder’s work, literal or artistic product.
In general, intellectual property is divided into two parts, including.
Industrial Property: It includes inventions, trademarks, industrial designs, and models, geographic indications of source.
Copyright: It includes literary and artistic works like novels, poems, films, cartoons, paintings, photographs, statues, music, and architectural designs.
Related rights is a part of the copyright that includes the rights of performers in their performances, the rights of phonograms’ producers in their recordings as well as the rights of broadcasting industry in the radio as well as TV programs they air.
Types of Intellectual Property
Trademark: A trademark is a sign or symbol that individualizes the goods or services of any organization. It distinguishes each business from its competitors. To fall under law protection, a trademark should be unique.
Geographical Indication: It is a notice that states that a specific product originates in a given geographical area.
Patent: Patent is a right granted by law to inventors or assignees to protect others from commercially benefiting from their patented invention without permission, for a specific time in exchange for detailed public disclosure of the patent invention.
Industrial Design: It is the aesthetics of a product. It includes three-dimensional elements, including the creation of the product’s shape, or two-dimensional ones, include graphics, patterns, and colors.
Trade Name: A trade name is also known as a business name. This name should uniquely distinguish a business from others.
Trade Secret: A trade secret can be any information or detail of commercial value that concerns production or sales operations, which is not known. The owner must take all possible measures to maintain its confidentiality.
Copyright: It is a form of IPR that protects works of human intellect. It includes literary and artistic works. It can be writings, musicals, work of fine arts like paintings and sculptures, as well as technology-based work like computer programs and electronic databases.
Integrated Circuit: A product, whether it is in intermediate or final form, in which the elements, or one of which is an active element, and whereby the interconnections are formed in and/or on a piece of material to perform an electronic function.