Obesity leads to diabetes It is important to understand how overweight in an individual can cause diabetes, and how one can treat it with the help of weight loss surgery. If one has a Body Mass Index (BMI) of 30 or more, it indicates that the person is overweight, which in turn can lead to several health issues, including diabetes.
Type II Diabetes is a complex metabolic disease caused primarily due to insulin resistance. Obesity, a potent risk factor for Type II Diabetes contributes to its development by inducing insulin resistance and inflammation, which in turn impair glucose regulation.
Understanding the concept of weight loss surgery useful in preventing diabetes
Bariatric surgery includes a variety of procedures performed on people facing obesity. In this procedure, surgical changes are made to one’s stomach, and the digestive system that limits the quantity of food one can eat and nutrients the individual can absorb, leading to weight loss. The weight loss surgery contributes to preventing several health issues, majorly helpful in preventing diabetes.
Benefits of weight loss surgery to prevent diabetes
The basic principle of weight loss surgery is to cut on the intake of calories and also to induce metabolic changes in the body. But not all weight loss procedures have the same effect and control on weight loss and diabetes. Certain methods have a greater effect. The two major types of weight loss surgeries are Gastric restrictive procedures and Intestinal bypass procedures.
Weight loss increases insulin sensitivity:
Gastric restrictive procedures limit gastric volume, thereby controlling the intake of calories by inducing satiety. Loss of weight after the surgery helps the secretion of insulin in the body, thereby helping in lowering the blood sugar level. The gastric procedures help primarily the patients who had Type II diabetes of short duration i.e., having diabetes for 2 or 3 years.
Less Lipotoxicity, inflammation:
A person with Diabetes Type II faces high lipotoxicity can lead to elevated Plasma, increased tissue fat content, altered fat topography, and adiposopathy. Weight loss surgery works on all these issues by decreasing plasma NEFA and muscle long-chain fatty acyl, redistributing fat, and reversing adiposopathy.
Metabolic Weight loss surgery induces weight loss by restructuring the stomach and digestive system, where a part of the small intestine is restricted from contact with nutrients like RYGB and BPD. This affects diabetes control to a large extent.
After the weight loss surgery, the calorie consumption reduces to almost 400-600 kcal/day, which leads to the initial weight loss the later weight loss and glucose control occure due to complex metabolic changes due to surgery. if one’s weight isn’t controlled, it becomes difficult to control the blood sugar, thus increasing the risk for complications.
Changes in gut hormones:
The changes in the digestive structure enable a significant change in the gut hormones. As the diabetogenic factor is released by the upper gut, the enhanced lower gut and decreased upper gut through the weight loss surgery helps to prevent diabetes by a large extent.
Intestinal Bypass procedures have also the same role of reducing calorie intake the way gastric banding does. But they gave an added component of malabsorption of fat and nutrients. After this procedure, even patients with a longer duration of Type II diabetes have improved or cured.
Most studies indicate that after surgery, the majority of individuals have either fully recovered or have improved condition about diabetes. The concept and basic principle which go behind these surgeries are bypassing the major part of the stomach and making the food reach directly the small intestine. So during this process doctors help the small intestine of the individual to get rid of excess glucose, thereby making one free or less prone to diabetes.
An individual shall understand that after weight loss surgery, life will be with certain rules. After bariatric surgery, one always thinks that it’s a new beginning. Therefore, a new beginning shall always have new targets, new goals, and everything in life should be focused on staying healthy.