The most important aspect of keeping any kind of diabetes in check is maintaining the level of sugar in the blood. One of the major concerns for people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes is hyperglycemia which means excessive blood sugar. There are 2 types of hyperglycemia:
- Fasting hyperglycemia: When blood sugar is higher than 130mg/dL after fasting for at least 8 hours.
- Postprandial or after-meal hyperglycemia: This is when your blood sugar shoots up after eating, to more than 180mg/dL for up to 2 hours after your meal. People who do not have diabetes will not see a spike beyond 140mg/dL unless they’ve had an unusually large meal.
Being casual about diabetes and not controlling blood sugar can eventually result in nerve damage and degeneration of blood vessels and organs. People who suffer from type 1 diabetes can also develop ketoacidosis which is a build-up of acids in the blood.
However, if you are someone who suffers from type 2 diabetes, neglecting it can cause a life-threatening condition in which the body becomes entirely incapable of breaking down sugar called HHNS or hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome. One of the signs of this is, you’ll pee a lot at first, then less often later on, but your urine could appear dark and you could be severely dehydrated.
So to prevent any of the above mentioned consequences, it is important to exercise restraint and control over the condition as soon as it is diagnosed.
Some causes of rising in blood sugar are:
- Forgetting insulin or oral medication dose
- Too much consumption of carbs
- Developing an infection
- Inactivity or lack of exercise
- Too much physical activity when insulin is low
Here are some early signs of rise in blood sugar:
- Trouble concentrating
- Blurred vision
- Frequent urination
- Weakness and fatigue
- Sudden weight loss
- Blood sugar more than 180mg/dL
Long term consequences of high blood sugar:
- Slow healing of cuts and wounds
- Chronic constipation or diarrhea
- Damage to eyes, nerves, kidneys and blood vessels
- Loss of vision
- Vaginal and skin infections
- Cold or insensitive feet
- Loss of hair on lower extremities
- Erectile dysfunction
If you notice any of these signs or have been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, here are some steps you can take to keep it under control:
- Drink more water. It will keep you hydrated and remove any excess sugar through urine.
- Exercise more. Exercise is very important as it is extremely efficient in reducing blood sugar, however, please consult your doctor to know the best exercises for you.
- Be cautious. If you already suffer from type 1 diabetes and know your blood sugar is high, check your urine for ketones. If you have ketones, DO NOT exercise. Even if you have type 2 diabetes, you must ensure that you do not have any ketones in your urine and are well-hydrated. Only then is exercise recommended.
- Watch what you eat. See a dietitian to know the exact quantities of food groups that you require and stick to the diet.
Always remember, diabetes is not a debilitating disease if you take care to maintain it.